Stereotypes are deeply embedded in our culture. They permeate every aspect of our communication with one another: journalism, lyrics, movies, casual conversation… you name it. It doesn’t take long before they wiggle their way into our minds, and from there they sneak into our stories.
Stereotypes and other clichés flourish because people are lazy. They allow us to take mental shortcuts when making judgments and imagining scenarios. When I meet a new person, I can use their clothing, race, gender, age and other obvious characteristics, compare them to my internal database of stereotypes, and get a false mental picture of who they are without expending the effort to actually find out. If I’m writing a story and I need a shopkeeper, I just can pull info out of my shopkeeper stereotype file. Putting in a middle-aged, balding, white man wearing an apron is way easier than thinking about all of the different characteristics my shopkeeper could have.
That’s why when you’re coming up with ideas for your story, stereotypes will show up first to the party. They are the default in our minds. Creating a story without them isn’t about being magically stereotype free. It’s isn’t about being upright and without bias. It’s about going through your ideas after you’ve created them, hunting down the stereotypes, and shooting those suckers where the sun don’t shine.
Why You Should Defy Stereotypes
While dumping culturally-defined ideas in your story will give you cute kittens and brave heroes, it will also make your work embody things you’d rather not adopt from society at large. Racism, homophobia, twinkies… you get the idea. All cultures prefer some classes of people over others, and so will your story if you aren’t paying attention.
But I want to be uninteresting…
Stereotypes are by their definition clichés. You’ve probably heard people ranting about how terrible clichés are before. Some types of clichés have their use, but you shouldn’t put clichéd characters in your stories because they are boring. Don’t provide a mental shortcut to spare lazy readers from thinking. A little thinking will help your audience be more engaged. Even more importantly, people are entertained by what’s new and novel, not by things as old and familiar as rotten vegetables in the fridge. This especially goes for spec fic fans. They aren’t even content with things happening in known reality — how do you think they’ll like your recycled characters?
Exclude younger generations from enjoying your work!
Culture is a moving target; including obvious cultural stereotypes will date your work quickly. Ideas that are fresh today will be tired tomorrow; ideas that are already old don’t stand a chance. Bias that sneaks in your work may seem innocent to most of your audience now, but after another generation or two, it will stink like old cat litter.
It’s possible to make character stereotypes acceptable in your work by subverting them. Putting in a blatant stereotype will cause your audience to pull from their internal file system to make assumptions about your character. Then you can surprise everyone by proving those assumptions wrong. The key is that including the stereotype has to be a conscious decision. It didn’t just sneak in.
Here are some examples:
Megara in Disney’s Hercules
Hercules: Aren’t you… a damsel in distress?
Meg: I’m a damsel. I’m in distress. I can handle this. Have a nice day!
Megara fits the stereotype, but her behavior continually defies expectations. She’s supposed to be screaming, kicking her legs, and calling “Help!” — not telling the hero to “get lost.” The subversion of her trope makes her a much fresher and more interesting character.
Jayne’s hat in Firefly
Jayne is also a stereotype: dumb muscle. We don’t expect him to be a real person with a variety of tastes and opinions, we just assume he’ll exhibit brutish, masculine behavior at every turn. That’s why it’s so surprising and delightful when he receives this hand-made hat from his mother and lovingly wears it.
To subvert or not to subvert
Subverting stereotypes can be fun, but there’s a problem: the stereotype. What if the writers had decided to make supporting characters that were completely novel instead? They would have been more interesting yet. Plus, not only will using clichés in this way still date your story, but subversions can become old and tiresome too. We’ve seen enough contrary princesses, can we please move on to subverting something else?
Your characters can still surprise your audience without stereotypes. The show Lost set expectations by allowing the viewers to become familiar with the characters – then they used backstories to show the audience a different side to them.
Characters that broke out of the box
Buffy from Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Before Buffy, there was a dearth of characters who worried about what to wear at prom while prowling a graveyard hunting for the undead. The popularity of her character proved not only that women with powers could carry a story, but that real-world relatability could be combined with apocalyptic scenarios to create amazing results.
Sulu from Star Trek: The Original Series
When Star Trek first came out, Asian men only appeared on screen to portray villains bent on destroying the western world. Breaking trends, Sulu was there to demonstrate the peace and unification of everyone on Earth. A helmsman and swashbuckling hero, Sulu is still popular.
Toph from Avatar: The Last Airbender
Toph is an earthbender – a magic worker who heaves huge slabs of solid rock. It’s a very masculine form of magic, and as stereotyping would have it, most earthbenders on the show are large men with big muscles. So when the creators first conceived of Toph, that’s what they wrote in. Then they changed their minds — making the character a young blind girl instead. Her need to escape from the pampered confinement of her parents’ rich estate gave the show more action and conflict. Her blindness provided an opportunity to mock characters for forgetting she couldn’t read. But most of all, the contrast emphasized how badass she is. In her opening scene, she is shown defeating the very stereotype she was originally slated to be.
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