First, what is character karma? As its name suggests, character karma is the sense that a specific character deserves a fate that’s either good or bad. Even when audiences aren’t aware of it, they keep a tally on whether each character has a karmic debt or surplus, and this tally changes their emotional response to story events.
What Creates Good or Bad Karma?
Karma depends on cultural values, so audiences won’t always agree on karmic accounting. However, there are two categories of personality traits that affect a character’s karma.
- Morality – A character who is moral earns good karma, whereas someone who acts immorally gains bad karma. While cultural morals differ, a selfless person looks better to audiences than a selfish one.
- Merit – A character who’s clever or determined is favored for good karma. A character who’s incompetent will gain bad karma.
To influence karma, the audience must witness the character doing things that exhibit these traits. If you just tell the audience your character has these traits through narration or dialogue, it’s unlikely to have an impact.
The context also matters. Characters gain more good karma when they use their merit or morality to overcome difficult obstacles. In general, the more they have to struggle to overcome the obstacle, the more good karma they will get. Characters gain more bad karma if they have it easy. If your selfish character is already living in luxury or your incompetent character messes up a done deal, they’ll acquire karmic debt.
However, a character’s actions are only one side of the balance sheet. A karmic deed creates an expectation that something good or bad will happen to a character, but once it happens, their karma disappears. In other words, the character may have wracked up a karmic debt, but has that debt already been paid?
In many cases, karma will resolve itself. If your character messes something up, that failure will likely be punishment in itself. If your character shows merit during the story, they’ve probably benefited from it somehow. A character showing moral or immoral traits might have already been rewarded or punished by the people around them. Karma really comes into play when characters do good or bad things but don’t get what they’ve earned. In these cases, the karmic imbalance builds up.
Using Karma to Change Character Likability
I probably don’t need to spell out that good karma makes a character more likable and bad karma makes them less so. Even so, you may not realize how many story conventions are rooted in this effect.
We’ve talked a lot about how spinach (humiliation) and candy (glorification) affects character likability, and karma is behind that. A character who eats their spinach is likely to have a positive karmic balance because they’ve been paying their karmic dues with bad fortune. If they also exhibit selfless traits, then the audience will feel they deserved much better than what they got – a karmic surplus.
This is a great recipe for a protagonist at the beginning of a story. That’s why writers try so hard to give their main character sympathetic problems in the first chapter. It’s also why problems aren’t effective sympathy generators if they are the character’s fault in some way. If the character did something to deserve misfortune, the spinach will only pay off their debt, not create a positive balance.
We don’t always want our characters to have good karma though. Having a villain or jerk-ass side character with bad karma will give the audience someone to dislike and raise tension in the story. If a rival ally is given credit for something the protagonist achieved, that will get the audience’s blood boiling. If the antagonist is steeped in karmic debt, that gives the audience another reason to root for the protagonist.
What matters is that the storyteller has a sense for how their audience will tally the karma of their characters. When the storyteller is not on the same page as the audience, a negative audience reaction is likely.
Storytellers who love and identify with their main character can be tempted into glorifying that character. But when a character is given lots of candy at the start of the story, the audience is likely to feel it’s unearned. This is a recipe for karmic debt – and for a protagonist that is unlikable to most people.*
Side characters intended as humorous are also likely to accumulate karmic debt by accident. In these cases, the storyteller will show the character messing everything up and escaping consequences by sheer luck. This routine is supposed to be funny, but it’s actually a recipe for an irritating character.
Using Karma to Create Satisfying Endings
Karma has a large role in determining whether an ending is satisfying. A great ending has two karmic requirements.
1. The ending must balance karmic accounting.
If you heap misfortune on a character with good karma or reward a character with bad karma, you risk creating an unsatisfying end.
However, balancing karma is not the same thing as letting your hero win. If a happy ending feels unrealistic, a bittersweet ending will be considered an appropriate reward for a hero. There’s also room for a heroic character with enough karmic debt to create an ending that’s sad but satisfying. The key is that if your main character fails, they must deserve to at some level.
In most cases, punishing a villain for their bad deeds will give the audience some long-awaited catharsis. However, if your hero has bad karma, the villain’s escape may be seen as punishment for the hero. So an evil villain doesn’t always have to settle their karmic debts.
If you have side characters with lots of good or bad karma, reward or punish them before the story is done. Otherwise, it may feel like you have dangling plot threads.
2. The main character must shape their ending with karmic deeds.
This may sound complicated, so let me break it down. Even if your protagonist has lots of good karma, a god can’t just swoop in at the end and reward them. At the story’s climax, the main character has to do something that saves or dooms the day – and that something must give them good or bad karma, respectively.
I refer to this deed as the critical turning point, and I have an article with six formulas for creating them. For instance, in one formula, the protagonist shows kindness to the antagonist and wins them over. Their act of kindness grants good karma because it is moral. In another, the protagonist pieces together a puzzle, allowing them to defeat the villain. Their cleverness grants them good karma because it demonstrates their merit.
A big-picture view of karma shows us why character deaths often create battles between fan communities or between fans and storytellers. Heroes and sidekicks die not only to raise tension or create drama but also to balance karmic accounting. When a woman dies after having sex or a gay couple dies after getting together, it suggests the storyteller thinks those characters are sinful and is punishing them. Whether or not that’s true, the fan reaction will be the same. So be aware of the morals you want to express to your audience, and make conscious choices about who should be punished – and who shouldn’t be.