The Origins of Brave, Tangled, and Frozen

This post is 4 in the series: The Origins of the Disney Princesses

I’ve now covered three quarters of the Disney Princesses, and now we’ve finally entered the era of computer animation. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006, and these three movies, one from Pixar and two from Disney, clearly show the influence of both studios. Let’s look under the hood and see where their stories came from.



Tangled is based on Rapunzel, a fairy tale popularized by the Brothers Grimm. They took it from a German translation of the French Persinette by Charlotte-Rose de la Force, which was probably inspired by the folktale Petrosinella. The original name of the story and maiden is a reference to parsley, while the Grimm version is a reference to rampion. In both versions, before Rapunzel was born, her mother desired the plant so badly that without it she would die.* This was a problem because it was growing in the forbidden garden of an enchantress named Gothel.

Rapunzel’s parents were just commoners, so when Gothel catches Rapunzel’s father stealing the plant for his wife, he only gets her to spare him by promising their child to her. Gothel takes the girl when she is born, names her after the plant, and the parents exit the story. The enchantress doesn’t need the girl for any magical purpose. In Persinette, it’s suggested she locks her in the tower because she’s a loving, but seriously controlling, mother.

Disney’s Flynn is a big deviation from the male lead in the original – a generic, unnamed prince who hears Rapunzel singing when he’s wandering through the woods and falls in love. Rapunzel lets him up after hearing him call to her, only to be completely surprised when there’s a guy in her tower. But he charms her, and they make with the smoochies. Originally, Gothel discovers he is visiting Rapunzel because she gets pregnant. To make the story child-friendly, the Brothers Grimm edited their version so that Rapunzel reveals his visits with a brainless slip of the tongue instead. But they didn’t remove the part where she gives birth to his children, because babies come from storks.

Once Gothel finds out about their relationship, she cuts off Rapunzel’s hair and sends her and the children away, then uses the hair to trap the prince. He ends up falling from the tower and going blind. The Brothers Grimm knew that people don’t usually go blind from a fall, so they added some convenient thorns that get into the prince’s eyes. Then the prince wanders around for a long time, and by pure chance he comes upon the place where Rapunzel and their children are.

Rapunzel cries, her tears get into his eyes, and presto! they’re healed. It isn’t previously mentioned that she has any powers, but why not? In the Grimm version, they go to his kingdom and live happily ever after. In Persinette, Gothel hangs around tormenting them until she figures out that the prince actually loves her daughter, and then gives her blessing to the couple.



Brave is an original story by writer and director Brenda Chapman. Though she was canned from the project and replaced by Mark Andrews, he mostly just polished up the details and got the project on a faster timeline.  Brave is a Pixar work, but it shows the influence of Disney in its framing – it’s Pixar’s first fantasy film, first film with a female protagonist, and first film to take place in the past.

When Brave was released, it officially took place in 10th century Scotland. While the setting was lifted straight from the Scottish highlands, it doesn’t look anything like it did in the 10th century. The clothing spans an an oddly wide era, from the late Iron Age to the 12th century, and there’s even a corset in one scene- they didn’t appear until the 16th century. Castles of the type shown in the movie also came significantly later.

Chapman has stated that the story was inspired by her relationship with her daughter, and by the fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm. As I explained earlier in this series, Andersen was Danish, the Brothers were German, and they both lived in the 19th century. That might be why the time periods got mixed up, and the influence of Celtic folklore is superficial at best.

Disney probably set Brave in the 10th century because that’s the last time Scotland had any bears. Unfortunately, there aren’t any surviving Scottish folktales that feature bears. However, there are a few stories from Andersen and the Brothers Grimm about men who have been turned into bears by witches or other magic workers. In all of these stories, a young and beautiful woman – who is often the protagonist – looks past the man/bear’s fearsome appearance. This proves she is a worthy bride once he turns back into a handsome prince. Brave’s plot is clearly meant as a subversion of these fairy tales and other stories from Disney. In Brave, Merida fights to free herself from marriage instead of proving she’s worthy of it. However, she does show that she can be a loving daughter, and that allows her to get her mother back.

The witch herself is a villain in countless fairy tales, including those written or adapted by Andersen and Grimm. Brave’s version, where the witch is a trickster rather than a villain, is a pleasant move towards modern values. In Grimm and Andersen tales, most witches are given a painful death before the end of the story. However, that might not have been true for 10th century Celtic tales. For example, Morgan le Fay, who is probably Welsh in origin, was a positive figure who helped and healed King Arthur until the 13th century, when she was turned into an antagonist.

The wisps do appear in Scottish folklore, although they’re also in folklore throughout most of Europe. Usually, they are depicted as a single light that appears in the marshes,* luring travelers into dangerous areas. Once the traveler gets close, the wisp moves farther away, staying out of reach. Sometimes the light is actually the lamp of an evil spirit, who eventually puts it out and leaves the traveler in the dark. When the wisps themselves are ghosts, they are generally depicted as unhappy spirits trapped in limbo. However, there are some stories where wisps lead brave travelers to treasure, so their helpful purpose in the movie isn’t an entirely new invention.


It’s also likely that Chapman and the Pixar creative team took some inspiration from Brave Margaret, a children’s retelling of a 19th century Gaelic folktale by Robert San Souci and Sally Wern Comport. Robert San Souci was a Disney consultant years earlier. He wrote the script for Mulan, and it’s possible he still had some influence on the Disney creative team when the concept for Brave was first conceived. However, past a vague concept, it’s clear that Brave went in a different direction. The similarities between Merida and Margaret are striking, but superficial. Unfortunately, Merida doesn’t slay large monsters like Margaret does.



Anna is an older version of Gerda, the protagonist of Han Christian Anderson’s The Snow Queen, the inspiration for Frozen. Except Anna is a princess, knew roughly where she was going, and had money to offer people who helped her. Gerda was a penniless commoner who wandered aimlessly from place to place, getting an extraordinary level of help by using pity alone.* And by talking to animals. It’s hard to believe Disney left that part out.

Gerda didn’t have any siblings; she was on a quest to find her childhood friend, a boy named Kai. He didn’t hide on the other side of a door; he was just a jerk. But he had a solid excuse – a demon mirror infection in his eye and heart.* The shards of the demon mirror cause him to interpret everything good and beautiful as ugly and bad, and vice versa. As a result, the demonic Snow Queen looks beautiful to him. Then she carries him off, because why not? To create Elsa, Disney merged Kai and the Snow Queen together.* Now you see how Disney got into the weird position of trying to make Anna fix Elsa’s emotional problems. Gerda saved Kai from the Snow Queen, so Anna needed to save Elsa… from herself.

So where did Kristoff come from? Clearly from some Disney executive who thought the movie needed more testosterone. A boy who gets rescued by a girl? Not adequate. Instead of a mountain man, Gerda meets a series of women. First an enchantress who tries to make Gerda forget Kai and stay as her daughter, then an unusually helpful princess, followed by a spoiled robber girl who keeps her captive for a while, and finally a couple wise women who help her get ready to face the Snow Queen. To find Kai, Gerda receives direction from some flowers, a pair of crows, a couple doves, and a reindeer who takes her most of the way to the Snow Queen’s palace on its back.

Though the kingdom is never threatened with eternal winter in the original, both stories end in pretty much the same way – with Anna/Gerda using the power of love to defeat both the literal and metaphorical cold. On top of a frozen body of water even. Except in the original story, the lake was inside the Snow Queen’s palace, and called the Mirror of Reason, but was broken into thousands of pieces, and yet was stable enough to rest a throne on, and the finest mirror in the world.*

We’ve now caught up to the present; there are no more princesses in the Disney collection. Perhaps I’ll make another update for Moana in 2018. Until then… Let it go!

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  1. shannon


    • Phylkw

      I always thought Brave was based on the Irish Myth & Legend “The Children of Lír” where an evil witch turns Fionnuala and her three brothers into four swans.

      One of the most (if not the most) beautiful Irish Legend there i

  2. Bess Marvin

    I loved this series so I want it to continue. While not in the main Disney princess line-up, there are a few more Disney films with princesses. Kida from Atlantis, Eilonwy from The Black Cauldron, Tiger Lily in Peter Pan, and in some versions of their stories Megara and Maid Marion. Maybe Princess Ata and Dot from a Bug’s Life could be thrown in from Aesop’s Ant and Grasshopper story too?

    • Chris Winkle

      I’m glad you enjoyed them! I’ll think about what other story histories I could cover. Maybe I’ll depart from Disney or look at some general fairytale tropes.

  3. Meg

    Pixar alredy confirmed that they mixed times when it came to Brave’s setting. That’s why you can’t place it in any especific time.

  4. Aryllia

    (Quick note that it was partly Kai’s own fault that the Snow Queen took him in, as he grabbed a hold of her sled when she was in town and didn’t dare to let go. She didn’t notice until they were far out in the fields and decided to more or less adopt him because finders keepers work with children too right?)

    It’s a true pity that all those women (some of which were ethnic minorities) were written out and replaced with a heterosexual white man. The reason the robber’s daughter held Gerda captive (for a total of one night)? Because she loved her. Interpret that any way you want, that’s the way she says it to Gerda.

    I mean, she’s unstable as fuck and clearly has a sadistic streak, but she would have made an amazing contrast against either Gerda or Anna if her role had been expanded and I would have loved to see her try to pick fights with the WOC towards the end.

    At the end of the story when Gerda and Kai is on their way home they meet the robber’s daughter again. She makes some insinuations that Gerda probably could have found a better love interest than Kai but accepts that Gerda has made her choice and promise to visit them if she ever comes by their town.

    The robber’s daughter then rides out for adventure (presumably to find a girlfriend that isn’t already obsessed with a boy). Que sequel hook.

    Also, you missed an interesting female character in the original: the leader of the robbers. No mention of any husband she might be standing in for, the story just states that the leader of the robbers is a dark women and there’s a few scenes of her roughhousing with her daughter.

    • Lilybelle

      Well you should definitely have your own Blog! You have a lot of information and passion! I would like to have a Blog, but I feel like I would never be clever enough about the things I am interested in to compete with people who have better cameras or (I would often like to blog about food, a sort of niche deal) any good enough materials (I long for a vitamix) to do what I really want to and do it right.
      Have you thought about a blog? You really should! And I think I have The Snow Queen on my kindle, now I want to read it.

      To the comment below me, I have never heard of Moana, rather unfortunate name, but I cannot believe I missed this totally! Was she a Princess too? It said it came out on 2016 which makes me think that it was out at the end of the year for Oscar season. Can anyone ever afford to go see all the Oscar stuff in December? Not me. I will look for Moana too.

    • Joe

      I have read the Snow Queen and was brought up on Hans Christian Anderson and am curious why you say the robber girl is a woman of color? The description I recall given is she was of darker skin with black eyes which actually sounds more like Slavic than African. Slavic also makes more sense considering the place it happens and the fact in the 1800s Africans were not considered even smart enough to be robbers even in Europe. Just curious on your reasons as I constantly try to self educate and perhaps in my readings I missed a clue as to the race of the Robber Girl.

      • Aryllia

        Person of colour means anyone who’s not considered (Caucasian) white, so I in no way implied that she was African. She is describes very vaguely as dark, hence not white, hence person of colour.

        • SunlessNick

          Given the stereotypes involved, the robber girl might have been to be Roma.

      • Aryllia

        Oh, and the “WOC towards the end” that I mentioned in the original comment is about “women of colour” of the “classic Swedish minorities” type. I’ve misplaced my copy of the book since writing that comment but I recall it was a Sami woman and a Finnish woman. Which probably sounds awfully white from an American perspective but trust me it was colour enough to matter in the 1800s.

        • Jeppsson

          So… I totally get that PoC doesn’t just refer to people of African origin, but also Native Americans, East Asians and more. However, it sounds a bit weird to me to use it as a catch-all for EVERYONE who’s a victim of racism, even if they look just like any other white person, and the racism only comes up when people learn their name or otherwise learn about their background. Like Jews, for instance – it seems weird to me to call Jews “people of colour”, even though they’re very much targeted by racism. Or the Sami, where I live.
          But I’m not a native English speaker (and there’s no term really equivalent to PoC in my own language), so I might be wrong about this. Any native English speaker, feel free to enlighten me!

          • Oren Ashkenazi

            I can’t speak for all native English speakers but I don’t think most of us would use “person of color” as shorthand for anyone who faces racial discrimination, especially as racism is a weird fractal with many layers.

          • Jeppsson

            Thanks Oren.

          • Aryllia

            Honestly, I’m not a native English speaker either so I freely admit that I’m winging it a bit. I erred on the side of over-using it in this context since we’ve had a history here in Sweden (at least during the 1800s & 1900s) to be very, very nit-picky with who is “white enough”, so someone described as “dark” would have stood out as such, and had their morals judged by the exact shade of their skin colour and shape of their nose, etc.

            We rather famously set out to pseudo-scientifically measure the features of the Sami population to “prove” how inferior they were to the majority population. Not a proud moment in history.

            I do apologise for the confusion though. In retrospect, using terminology along the lines of “ethnic minorities” would probably have been clearer.

          • Oren Ashkenazi

            Don’t worry about it, Aryllia. Regardless of terminology, the important part is that we all agree that the Sami are one of many groups who face serious racial discrimination.

          • Jeppsson

            Yeah I very much agree with that too! It’s not just in the past, either. Even today they’re victims of hate crimes, like people intentionally slaugthering their reindeers out of pure hate… It’s merely that it sounds odd to me to call them PoC. They’re often pretty fair in pigmentation, many are even natural blonds. But they’re victims of racism nonetheless.

  5. glatticus

    i love all of the origin stories for the princesses and hope you can do more,but Moana came out in 2017! It came out a couple of months a go.

    • Chris Winkle

      This is true, they moved up the schedule since I wrote this in 2014. I guess I owe everyone another post!

  6. Bel

    I love this! Have you considered doing any more? I think it would be interesting to see the origins of Moana, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Lion King.

    • Dernhelm

      Well, The Hunchback of Notre Dame was obviously based on the book by Victor Hugo buy Disneyfied and The Lion King was based on Hamlet but with a happy ending, but I’d be incredibly curious about the origins of Moana, since I thought it was an original story but with pre-existing mythology and folklore inserted.

  7. Zara

    I have currently understood that the first first ancestry story of a tangeled girl comes from iranian novel shahname that has written by ferdowsi. The real story is about two lovers zal and roudabeh. Rudabeh had beautiful tangeled hair. She sends her hair out by window of her room for zal to help him climb over the castle. But zal refuses and kisses her hair and tells her i will never use your hair as a rope.
    Im not native english and i heard this story from my iranian boyfreind. I searched for ferdowsi and i found that he was living between years 920_1020 BC

    • Bellis

      Awww, thats so sweet, kissing her hair

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