Should You Use Non-Humans in Your Setting?

Picture the scene: you’ve worked long and hard on the perfect setting. You’ve crafted a fantasy world of ancient cities and unexplored depths, or a science fiction empire with planets teetering on the edge of war. Now you must decide, are humans alone in this world? That is, are there other intelligent life forms beyond good old Homo sapiens?

Some very famous genre stories portray a crowded universe, or at least a crowded Middle Earth. Tolkien gave us the standard lineup of elves, dwarves, halflings, and orcs. Star Trek aliens like Vulcans and Klingons have been mirrored in countless works as well, if not by name. By the same token, many great works focus entirely on our own species, getting deep into what it means to be human. Which option you chose will depend on a number of important factors.

Non-Humans Make the Setting More Interesting

Never underestimate the power of spectacle. Many fantasy and scifi settings would lose their appeal if they featured only humans. That may sound shallow, but it’s actually the audience’s desire to discover something unknown.

Jim Butcher’s Dresden Files series has mastered this element of genre storytelling. Several books are specifically about introducing a new race of mystical creatures so the titular character can learn about them. The audience learns at the same time Dresden does, and they are dazzled by the beauty of it all.

If your story is in a visual medium, or if you’re really good at description, this is extra relevant. One of the most memorable scenes in all of film is the Mos Eisley Cantina, with dozens of unique looking aliens in every corner. Star Trek’s Klingons are so distinctive that even non-Trekkies can recognize their makeup.

There’s also a certain coolness factor to consider. Chewbacca receives little development or backstory in the original Star Wars films, and yet he’s still a beloved character. Why is that? It’s because he’s a cool alien! He’s super strong and covered in fur and he might tear your arms off for beating him at holo chess.

Genre stories depend on some sort of hook that sets them apart from conventional literature, and a few cool aliens can be just the thing. Nothing says ‘escape from reality’ like a pointy eared humanoid or a man with two hearts.

Non-Humans Let You Explore Sensitive Issues From a Safe Distance

Scifi has a long tradition of using aliens to comment on human problems. Star Trek is well known for this, paralleling such difficult subjects as the Vietnam War and class inequality, but the tradition didn’t start there. More than a decade before Roddenberry’s creation aired, the comic Judgement Day made a scathing denouncement of racial segregation using blue and orange robots. Fantasy has fewer entries in this category, but they certainly exist. Terry Pratchett’s Discworld books use dwarves, trolls, and goblins to critique everything from generational wars to gender discrimination.

This kind of expression is incredibly valuable. First, it insulates a story from the knee-jerk reaction that often comes with critical analysis. In some cases, disguising what the work is really about is a necessity to get around actual censorship by a repressive government. In others, it fools risk-averse publishers or network executives. Then there’s the audience to consider. Some people will run for the exits in the face of a depressing anti-war film, but will watch with rapt attention as the same scenario is played out by green-skinned aliens.

Second, and perhaps even more important, using non-humans grants us some perspective. When writing a story about something important, it’s easy to get caught up in our own preconceptions. A lifelong Socialist, for example, may have a difficult time imagining Wall Street traders as anything but greedy fat-cats. By removing the story from its original context, we create something that will encourage others to think, free from some of our own prejudice.

When the creators of Battlestar Galactica wanted people to consider what might motivate suicide bombers, they put their story in the context of a Cylon occupation. Even though there were humans involved,* it was far enough removed that American viewers could watch it without all the baggage that’s normally attached to the word ‘terrorist.’

Non-Humans Allow for the Truly Alien

Humans are incredibly diverse, but there are some things most of us have in common. We’re all carbon based, for one thing. Our behavior tends to fall within a certain range as dictated by our biology, and it’s easy to imagine all life working that way. Many fantasy races and alien life forms do little to dissuade us of that notion, with most of them being essentially humans with a bit of makeup and odd sounding names.

However, it is possible to create aliens that are truly, well, alien. This goes for fantasy races as well. When you create a species that is biologically distinct from humans, all kinds of possibilities open up. Such species have different senses, completely altering their outlook on life. A naturally powerful species might not have the same emphasis on technology and devices that we do, focusing instead on new ways to use its own strength. Even something as simple as diet can have a huge impact. A fully herbivorous species would alter its environment differently than omnivorous humans, prioritizing plant growth to the exclusion of other animals.

There are many uses for such truly alien life forms. The horror genre is full of them, from the works of HP Lovecraft to Ridley Scott’s Alien. While they can certainly be terrifying, true aliens have another use: expanding the audience’s mind. For a long time, genre stories have given us a stunted view of what life can be. Little green men and ale guzzling dwarves have been the norm, but we live in a universe capable of so much more. On our own planet, there is a shrimp species that uses sonic cannons to hunt its prey. What could live on other planets, or on fantasy worlds that exist only in our minds?

Our thinking shouldn’t be limited to variations on what we’ve already seen. Genre fiction has the potential to make people consider completely new ideas, and true aliens are a great way to do it.

Non-Humans Can be Overplayed

While it’s possible for non-humans to be truly alien, most of them aren’t. A disappointing number of fantasy races are retreads of Tolkien’s creations, with a small number of variations to make them look distinctive. Authors have been copying Middle Earth for decades, each dwarf louder and more boisterous than the last. Even George R. R. Martin had to have his Children of the Forest, an ancient elf-like race that loves nature.

If you thought fantasy authors were a repetitive crowd, they don’t hold a candle to roleplaying games. Dungeons and Dragons steals wholesale from The Lord of the Rings, and makes no apology for it. Because D&D so completely dominates the market, other systems have followed suit in an attempt to cut a slightly larger piece of the pie.

While science fiction doesn’t have a single blueprint the way fantasy does, many alien species have fallen into the same roles over and over again. There’s the honorable warrior race, the cold and calculating race, the sneaky dishonorable race, and so on.

Many authors put non-humans into their world because they feel it’s expected of them, not because they have an interesting idea. Even those who do have ideas often get trapped in the preconceptions of what a non-human should look like, and so we get the same thing over and over again.

Non-Humans Are Often One Note

The Klingons of Star Trek can be summed up with one word: warrior. Everything about their culture and physiology is based on fighting. Only the very best episodes show them to have any desires other than to stab the nearest living creature. They’re the quintessential example of a monoculture: a group focused on one thing to exclusion of all else. While Star Trek is particularly notable for this trope, they’re not the only ones. Wookies in the Star Wars Extended Universe are similar, and when was the last time you read about a dragon who didn’t want to hoard gold?

Similarly, orcs and goblins are almost always evil. There’s rarely a reason given, they just exist to be bad. Entire races are confined to a single moral attitude. This kind of one note characterization is caused by lazy writing, but it’s surprisingly difficult to avoid. Authors want their non-humans to be memorable, and there often isn’t time to fully explore an entire culture. As such, the non-humans get slapped with their most plot-relevant label and left that way.

As common as it is, it’s a terrible practice that goes far beyond bad worldbuilding. Non-human races are seen as stand-ins for real life cultures, even if the author never intended them that way. Building an entire group around one idea encourages the audience to see real people that way, which is the exact opposite of what genre fiction should be doing.

While groups of humans can certainly be given the same one note treatment as non-humans, it’s harder to get away with. Most of us, including authors, know that people are diverse and will usually try to reflect that in our writing. Unfortunately, that instinct often goes out the window when non-humans are involved.

To avoid this, anyone planning to include non-human races must spend the time to develop them. The rampaging orc horde can still be the bad guys, but the audience should understand what drives them. What makes such a large group go to war? Are they fleeing some kind of ecological disaster? Did predatory trade pacts with humans rob them of their natural resources? If you go to the trouble of including them, they should be worth fleshing out.

Non-Humans Make Humans More Homogenized

This is an unavoidable consequence of introducing aliens or fantasy races into your setting: they make humans look like a single group. This shouldn’t be surprising – apples and oranges are both seen as part of the fruit group when compared to broccoli – but it’s problematic. Humans are diverse, and that diversity should be celebrated.

In many high fantasy settings, there may be more than one nation of humans, but they still end up being fairly similar. The main difference between Rohan and Gondor is that one likes to ride horses more than the other. The real cultural differences are saved for the elves and dwarves. Science fiction settings have the same problem, with aliens providing the Other which contrasts against the main characters.

Then there’s the unfortunate reality that when we consolidate humans, we tend to make them like us. Far too often, that’s white and Anglo-American.* Sometimes we’ll get really creative and model them off of other European cultures. It’s so bad that genre readers must be specifically told a character’s ethnicity, or they will assume white. Even Star Trek, which usually does a good job of casting diverse actors, seems to assume that only Western culture will be relevant in the future.

This is a bad habit we need to get over, but it’s harder to avoid when non-humans are involved. Time spent fleshing out gnome and wookie societies is time not spent fleshing out human society. TV shows like Avatar: The Last Airbender and Firefly were able to create diverse and complicated human cultures because they didn’t have to split their time with non-humans.* Books like the Vorkosigan Saga by Lois McMaster Bujold do the same thing, diving deep into the complexities of human civilization.

Of course, it’s possible to have well developed human cultures and non-human races. It’s just difficult. Terry Pratchett’s Discworld books are one example, with dozens of vivid and interconnected societies, both human and non. This did not happen by accident. Pratchett took his time, developing the Discworld setting over the course of 40 novels. If you want to have your non-human cake and eat it too, you’ll have to put in the work.

The most important thing to consider when deciding whether or not to include non-humans in your setting is what kind of stories you want to tell. Although non-human races often fall into poorly thought out clichés, they have also been the catalyst for superb literature. Is your story the kind that will benefit from an extreme Other? Something so different, it doesn’t even share DNA with us? If so, then non-humans may be right for you! On the other hand, if you’re only putting them in because it’s expected, then hands off the elves – humans need attention too.

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  1. Adam J. Thaxton

    This is fantastic – it’s my first time reading through this article. I see a lot of non-humans used as shorthand to create stereotypes – players picking elves because they don’t want to have to explain that their character is a nature-loving mage with a pseudo-Greek architectural background. It engenders somewhat lazy storytelling, since it assumes our fantasy bases are all the same (I didn’t know what an elf was until well after I’d been putting together my own worlds – though, I didn’t even know what roleplaying was until well after I’d been doing that, as well).

    When your fantasy background comes from Central and Southeastern America, Polynesia, and the Phillipines, you tend to come to a fantasy table with completely different expectations.

    • Oren Ashkenazi

      I’m really glad you liked it! And yeah, if you have experience outside the Western European milieu, I’d imagine a lot of fantasy stories look really samey to you.

  2. Indigo

    This was quite fascinating!

    Have you ever done a post about writing entirely in the non-human? That’s what I’m enjoying doing right now with my world. There are NO humans there. Humanoid creatures perhaps, but they call themselves neuvals and live in an entirely different world with two moons and huge amounts of abundant magical resources (which everybody can use and tap into to varying degrees of proficiency and skill). I’ve been going in depth in developing this world alongside two of my friends who help me flesh it out more via RPing certain characters and bouncing ideas off each other.

    It’s a world built upon a sentient species that has a multitude of different races (as diverse as a full-grown dragon bigger than a house to a tiny pixie or winged cat, from centaurs to dwarves, and to many other ones without equivalent names in Earth mythology that I and my friends came up with). Where everybody can teleport, shapeshift into different forms (depending on their racial mixing that is), use telepathy in addition to vocal speech and aura reading, can use different forms of the same magical essence that permeates their world and their bodies and selves, with a completely different history and a world built literally upon magic taking the place of the common matter of Earth.

    It’s a very strange world indeed with many MANY changes from how humans here on Earth are used to experiencing and living! And yet there are enough similarities that humans can be able to orient themselves by when they pick up the book and read it.

    I was just wondering if you had any thoughts you’ve already written about in regards to the unique challenges faced by those who are writing from a distinctly non-human perspective for human readers, and since humans do NOT exist in this world, everybody is non-human in those same ways and consider some things normal and unremarkable that we would consider weird and mindboggling strange. In both of my two manuscripts (with entirely different casts of characters in different parts of the world and in different time periods) the POV MCs are those who are “insiders” of the world. Non-humans with fellow non-humans, and absolutely no care or interest or reason to know of anything related to us humans.

    In any case, I’d love to hear your thoughts about this – and even better, to read any posts you’ve made of writing from a non-human POV in a non-human dominated world, by using an “insider” character rather than the typical “outsider” thrust in that needs explaining all the time. I feel this is not something that’s done very often which is a great shame! So many great books could break the typical human-dominated mold and really bring human readers into the unknown territory if such a bold attempt was regularly done.

    • Oren Ashkenazi

      That sounds both awesome and really ambitious. I don’t have any articles that would specifically address something so truly alien, though we do have a podcast on Using Non-Humans in Stories.

      Chris also has an article about describing characters, and some of it is devoted to describing aliens, so that might be useful too.

      Beyond that the best advice I can give you is to keep a close eye on those powers. With so many abilities running around, you may find it hard to keep them from breaking your plot. I’ve got a post on that too.

      Good luck!

      • Indigo

        Wow I wasn’t expecting the fast reply, thank you!

        I can’t check out the podcast unfortunately, unless you have a transcript I can read. Auditory things don’t work well for deaf people, while visual things (like writing) work for us much better.

        Thank you for the other two links, I’m going to go and check them out now! I read in Limyaael’s awesome rants two different ones that seemed to help with the powers component as well: and

        For the former rant, on beings of extreme power, there was one section that really stood out to me:
        1) Who can oppose them? Why, their equals, of course.

        It’s something I’m making sure to keep in mind with my world is no matter how powerful someone is, there’s at least one other person (usually many in a group) who can challenge them and beat them some of the time and loose some of the time and tie them most of the time. By that hierarchy there’s always someone more powerful than them who can keep them in check, or a group of individually lesser powerful people who can work together to keep one more powerful person in check too. I use what I’ve studied in human nature, psychology, sociology, and the sheer impressive diversity of personalities, mindsets, and lives here on Earth with just humans alone to help inform me with my non-humans. It helps me to think of the non-humans as being similar in that diversity where everybody helps to contribute to keeping the other people in check and balancing it out just by existing and living their own lives – lives which readily impact and affect and ripple out into others.

        My plot tends to be heavily character focused and more reliant on the different people just reacting and acting upon each other based on their own individual lives, personalities, histories, situations, experiences, intentions, motivations, and expectations/assumptions of the other people. It’s very entertaining for me to read and write such scenes because they really seem to come to life and bring me to plot ideas I never considered before that really work out very well.

        My challenge is less on the worldbuilding (since I’ve done a lot of work and will continue to do more work into that) and the characters and their dynamics, and more on…. how do I CONVEY this to the reader without losing them? How do I gently lead them into this strange world, showing them first the things they’d recognize and then gradually expanding it into the things they don’t, and explaining a bit more each time about something new so it settles into the reader’s understanding in a gentle way. How much is too much? How much is too little?

        That sort of balance I’m still working through as I write my manuscripts and get feedback from alpha readers (both those who already know the world building and those who don’t).

        Thank you again for the links and the speedy reply! I have a lot of reading to do on your site (what with all the marvelous posts you have here) and I'm enjoying every bit of it.

  3. Tumblingxelian

    This was really well thought out and as someone who is hoping to write fantasy with non-human characters, incredibly useful.

  4. Dave L

    One thing I dislike about non-humans in most settings is that the differences between them and humans have unfortunate implications.

    In typical settings ALL goblins are stupid, belligerent, and weak; ALL Vulcans are smarter than humans but incapable of understanding emotion; ALL elves are graceful, clever, and arrogant; ALL Kryptonians are super-powerful…

    And these traits are not cultural, they’re genetic. Each member of the race is like that from birth, and nothing can change that. Therefore, there is nothing wrong w/ killing all orcs, even orc babies, since they cannot be anything other than evil. No Vulcan should ever be in charge of a starship, because none of them have the intuition the job requires. The Kryptonians are absolutely correct about humans being weak, and right to exclude them from dangerous missions.

    The problem here should be obvious.

    Yes, Discworld subverts this, but most works don’t.

    • Cay Reet

      I agree. If you use non-humans, they should be diverse, because no race is made up of clones (and even if it were, every clone would have a different life with different experiences). That means, of course, not just using them as cannon fodder to make your heroes look good.

      However, imagine a group of heroes made up of a lot of different characters from different species. The two elves constantly argue, because one of them is in favour of using magic for every problem and the other one is useless with magic, but can build things out of virtually any piece of trash you find. The goblin keeps sneaking away at night to have a read in peace instead of doing his guard duty, because he has no study time during the day. One of the orcs is a master of cooking and can make what tastes like a gourmet meal out of things found in the forest. His mate is a skilled diplomat and speaks almost all standard languages spoken on the whole continent.

  5. Makhno

    One interesting area seldom explored is cultural diversity within non-human species. Even works that make them individually very diverse often give them one culture per species.

    But why shouldn’t there be 100 dwarf nations, as different from each other as Congo from Japan? Exploring what they would still have in common, especially when that sets them apart from humans, would also be fascinating.

  6. Janet

    It doesn’t seem like you read LOTR. It’s highly inaccurate to say the human cultures of Middle Earth are all the same. While the movies and story don’t get too deep into the cultures of Gondor and Rohan, the appendices say that Gondor was more influenced by Elves. It also seems like Rohan is more rough around the edges.

    There’s a huge divide within Trekkies as to how diverse aliens should be. It seems like the canon gatekeepers want monocultures. I argued with someone who thought T’Pol wasn’t a real Vulcan because she’s too emotional. I think that’s what makes her interesting but she thinks since there were so many other humans on board, we don’t need to see her struggle. She also said Vulcans don’t get messed up over the death of a parent like humans. I pointed out that ENT had a Vulcan psychiatrist and Vulcans shouldn’t all have the same level of control as Spock. She didn’t respond. It’s more realistic to make aliens have different personalities but do canon gatekeepers care about realism? It is possible to make aliens diverse without making them too human?

    • Cay Reet

      Actually, since Spock is half human from his mother’s side, he should, theoretically, be more emotional than the average Vulcan. Yes, aliens are people and should be allowed to have different personalities, but the society they live in has a great influence, too.

      • Janet

        So does upbringing. While Sarek wasn’t that great of a dad, Spock got along better with his mom, who boosted his confidence. Meanwhile, T’Pol lost her dad at a young age so Spock got a better start in life. If Amanda died younger than she did in the JJverse, do you think Spock would have been as emotional as T’Pol?

        • Cay Reet

          He might have been. There are a few not-completely-canon novels which deal with the question of why exactly Spock has managed to bury his human side so deeply. One claims he actually has a very high ESP factor (he’s a very strong telepath) and therefore he needed to strengthen his shields beyond what his father, for instance, needed to do (Sarek’s ESP factor is rather low for a Vulcan, which was useful for him as an ambassador, since he didn’t need such strong shields to protect himself). That went along with a very strong control over his own feelings, too. A certain need to prove himself, because he was considered a half-blood might also have been a factor.

          Society and upbringing go together a lot, because for most people, society has a strong influence on upbringing. A Vulcan child is not just surrounded by their parents, but also by classmates, by friends, by teachers, by other relatives (family is an important topic, according to the novels I mentioned). The whole society is build on the principles of logic and reason. Children are taught early not to be emotional. If it worked for a child with an emotional parent (Amanda never even tried to become as stoic as a Vulcan), it should have worked even more with a child who didn’t have such a different home life.

          The question is how much diversity you’d get and in which ways and why people would differ. A Vulcan going through the usual upbringing on Vulcan (or in a large colony with a strong connection to Vulcan) would not be all that emotional (specific situations or times like the Pon Farr excluded), unless they explicitly shunned the tradition (there are a few examples in the novels, too). But a woman who has a high-enough standing for being added to the first ever mixed crew would, most likely, not be one of those.

  7. DV

    For the most part, I prefer fantasy to stick to mythology. When it starts making up aliens with no ties to myth or folklore, it effectively just becomes bad science fiction. Western fantasy grew out of mythology and folklore, and abandoning that heritage puts you in a different genre, to my mind. Weird fiction, or whatever.

    • Henry Lancaster

      What’s there to keep fantasy stories based off of Eastern mythology? Stories based off the Four Symbols in Chinese mythology, or perhaps even yokai in Japanese folklore, make for interesting tales. Isn’t fantasy inherently “weird”?

  8. Xandar The Zenon

    That’s very true about assuming characters are white. My all time favorite author, Brandon Sanderson, is pretty good about racial diversity in his universe. In the Stormlight Archive, the vast majority of characters and ethnic groups in the world are actually not white, and of the ones that are only one group doesn’t have epicanthic folds over their eyes. And unless you pay close attention, you probably don’t even realize it, even though there are plenty of hints.

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