Analysis

Five Cases of Unfulfilled Foreshadowing

Hope is disappointed when stories don't keep their promises.

Foreshadowing is used to either make something more believable or to increase tension. In the former, the foreshadowing makes it seem more likely that something might happen. In the latter, it makes the reader worry that something might happen. But what if that something never happens, or it does and the results aren’t what readers were primed to expect? That’s when you get unfulfilled foreshadowing, and it is a major source of frustration for readers. Today we’ll examine some high-profile examples so that you can see some of the common ways foreshadowing goes unfulfilled.

Spoilers: Abhorsen, Ant Man, Red Seas Under Red Skies, Neuromancer, Fahrenheit 451.*

1. Unlikely Betrayal, Abhorsen

This isn't Mogget, and as such is far more likely to betray you. This isn’t Mogget and as such is far more likely to betray you. The Evil Attack Kitty of Doom by starmanseries used under CC BY 2.0

Abhorsen is the third book in a trilogy of magic, undead, and a world-ending cataclysm. One of its main characters is Mogget, a cat-familiar to the Abhorsen family. In addition to being sarcastic and knowledgeable, Mogget can turn into an evil, but extremely powerful, magic spirit if his collar is removed. So he’s a useful cat to have around.

Early in the book, Mogget is briefly captured by another powerful spirit. He then escapes and is very cagey about how he did so. As the book goes on, he starts acting strangely, and the other characters grow suspicious of him. Clearly, this is foreshadowing to build tension about whether Mogget might betray his fellow protagonists. Who knows what that other spirit said or did to him?

Unfortunately, this foreshadowing falls flat because it’s completely unbelievable. Remember, this is the third book, so we know the characters pretty well by now. Mogget has already shown that he’s fully loyal to the Abhorsen family, even if he often demonstrates that loyalty in the form of sarcasm. What’s more, the big bad of this book wants to literally destroy the world. If the villain wins, all of existence will cease. Even if we didn’t know Mogget so well, it’s hard to see why he’d ally with someone like that.

Since there’s no reason for Mogget to willingly join up with the big bad, that only leaves mind control. While the villain does have that ability, it would still be unsatisfying. If Mogget were mind controlled, there are far more direct ways he could sabotage the heroes, and all he does is act a bit strangely. Plus, the heroes have an easy way to send Mogget away if they’re suspicious of him,* and since they don’t use it, they don’t seem too worried.

Of course, in the big battle at the end, Mogget sides with the good guys, because why wouldn’t he? We aren’t surprised or satisfied, because there was never a serious chance that anything different would happen. Instead, we’re left wondering why Mogget acted strangely in the first place.

2. Heroine Doesn’t Prove Herself, Ant Man

Hope getting her Wasp suit in Ant Man Now if only this had happened when it was important.

Ant Man has a lot of problems, but perhaps the worst is how Hope Pym is treated. The premise is such: Hank Pym has created a super suit that lets the wearer shrink down and also control ants.* He has a dangerous mission that requires the suit, but his poor health means he can’t use it himself anymore. His daughter Hope has been training with the suit for years, is an expert martial artist, and wants to take on the mission.

Naturally, Pym says no, because Hope is a girl – I mean because Hope is his daughter and he’s worried about her. Instead, he hires some Random White Dude to wear the suit, and now Hope has to train this schmuck. This setup is so protagonist Scott Lang can be completely unprepared for his mission and also have a badass mentor to get him into shape. However, it serves another purpose. In several scenes, Hope challenges her father, asserting that she’s fully capable of taking on this mission. He denies her, insisting the mission is too dangerous.

This is clearly foreshadowing for Hope to prove her controlling father wrong, yes? Probably in a scene near the climax, she’ll bust in wearing a suit of her own and turn the tide of a hopeless fight. Stunned by his daughter’s bravery and determination, Pym will realize he was wrong the whole time. Everyone goes home happy.

Except that never happens. Hope accedes to her father’s demands and stays out of the action, leaving the poorly prepared Scott to fend for himself. This is an amateur mistake. It not only makes all of Hope’s clashing with her father seem pointless but also amps up the film’s sexism since the only female protagonist is completely sidelined in favor of a man. Instead of the obvious choice of letting Hope kick ass and take names, the film ends with Pym deciding on his own that he shouldn’t treat his adult daughter like a child and giving her a second suit that he’s made.

This doesn’t fulfill any expectations or provide satisfaction, because Hope’s actions played no role in Pym’s decision. It puts the focus on him when it should be on her, and it goes against what the film implicitly promised to do.  

3. The Obvious Explanation, Red Seas Under Red Skies

A burning ship from Red Seas Under Red Skies

Scott Lynch’s Red Seas Under Red Skies is a really good book. It has compelling characters, a strong plot, good representation of women and people of color, and awesome sea battles. That said, it is also home to some really bad foreshadowing. The book opens with a flash forward where the protagonists from the previous book, Jean and Locke, are trying to kill each other. Anyone who’s read the first entry in the series knows these two have a bond stronger than blood, so what could possibly make them turn on each other?

After this high-stakes opening, the first few chapters are fairly slow. It’s a rude trick to use such a flash forward to keep readers going through the boring early chapters; it’s better to make the early chapters high stakes. But it’s also common, so we’ll give Lynch a pass for now. As the story unfolds, we keep wondering what might happen to make Jean and Locke turn on each other. Will one of them fall under the control of sorcery? Will they find a score so valuable they can’t agree to split it? Excitement builds!

Finally, the much anticipated scene arrives and the reveal is… It was a trick to fool some enemies. What? That’s it? That’s neither surprising nor satisfying, because it’s the first option we considered and discarded for being too obvious. Locke and Jean are professional con-men; tricking others is literally what they do for a living. In fact, they’ve pretended to be enemies on several occasions.

By starting the book with this flash forward, Lynch implied it was something out of the ordinary. After all, it was important enough to skip right to the front of the story. Instead, it was business as usual for our protagonists. And if something is routine for the protagonists, it feels routine to us. Fortunately, the book is good enough to overcome this problem, but it’s a major flaw that could have been avoided if the opening chapters hadn’t required a flash forward to keep readers interested.

4. A Ninja vs Cyborg Fight That Never Was, Neuromancer

Cover art of Neuromancer.

Neuromancer is a foundational work of the cyberpunk genre. It features extreme cybernetics, blossoming AI, full immersion virtual reality, and… ninjas? For some reason the author thought old-fashioned ninjas* with swords and bows would fit right in among this high-tech wonderland. Mine is not to reason why.

The ninja in question is named Hideo, and he’s a bodyguard for one of the book’s antagonists. Even though he only appears onscreen near the end, we know about him far earlier because his reputation as a deadly fighter is constantly talked up. It’s established early and often that Hideo is a badass who will ruin your day, and he is held up as one of the major obstacles in the protagonists’ path.

One of those protagonists is a cyborg brawler named Molly. She has a long list of enhancements that make her super deadly in a physical confrontation. We’re talking upgraded reflexes, hyperawareness, and razor sharp blades in her fingertips, just to name a few. She’s even referred to by others as a “street samurai.” You know where this is going, right? At some point in the novel, Molly and Hideo are going to fight, a literal case of Future Ninja vs Cyborg Samurai. It will be a struggle as titanic as it is satisfying.

It never happens. When Hideo finally does meet the protagonists face to face, he switches sides and hunts down a different antagonist for them. Then, he’s out of the story. There’s no showdown or even the subversion of a showdown. Hideo and Molly barely interact at all.

By talking up Hideo’s fighting prowess, Neuromancer planted the expectation that he would be important. By including Molly, whose primary purpose is physical combat, the book seemed to provide Hideo with a worthy opponent. All the hyping of Hideo’s ability wasted page space and left us disappointed because the promised payoff never arrived.

5. A Mysterious Uncle: Fahrenheit 451

Fireman Cropped

Fahrenheit 451 is a classic, and it’s not hard to see why. The protagonist, Guy Montag, is a “fireman” tasked with burning books so their unpleasant knowledge won’t ruin anyone’s consumerist good time. But Montag isn’t satisfied with his life. He knows there’s something missing, but being a product of his culture, he isn’t sure how to proceed.

His first nudge into rebellion comes from Clarissa, a young woman who questions everything and is deemed anti-social for not conforming to expectations.* In addition to inspiring Montag, Clarissa often mentions how she got her own talent for nonconforming from a mysterious uncle who loves to break the rules. The uncle comes up enough that even Montag thinks about him.

Clarissa later dies, run down by an uncaring or perhaps murderous motorist because that’s the sort of society this is. This leaves Montag at a loss. He wants to keep discussing his thoughts on the merits of books and knowledge, but he knows that sharing it with the wrong person could get him arrested. He wracks his brain, trying to think of someone he might know who’d be sympathetic, someone with a history of nonconformity and rule breaking.

For reasons unknown, Montag does not seek out Clarissa’s uncle. The uncle never appears in the story at all. Instead, Montag suddenly remembers that he once investigated an old English professor named Faber and decides to look him up. Why Montag took so long to think of Faber is never explained. Faber goes on to play the role of mentor to Montag, guiding him through the early stages of rejecting his cultural conditioning.

It’s frankly baffling why the author, Ray Bradbury, invented a completely new character for this role when the uncle was already established. It’s as if Bradbury got to that point in the novel, thought “damn, I need a mentor character, better invent one,” and completely forgot the work he’d already done foreshadowing the uncle. Since this book was supposedly written in a period of days on a typewriter rented by the hour, that seems a likely explanation.

Whatever the reason, dropping the uncle and conjuring Faber from nothing is a serious weakness for the story. We’re left wondering why Montag never thought of this conveniently placed English professor before and also wondering when this uncle is going to show up. Making the uncle and Faber the same person would have handily solved the problem and made the book far more satisfying.


Foreshadowing sets expectations, whether the author intends it or not. Emphasizing an element of the story gives the impression that it will be important later. If expectations are not met, readers will be disappointed. One instance of unfulfilled foreshadowing might not ruin a story, but it will make the audience less likely to take later foreshadowing seriously, which could lead to them putting the book down out of boredom or frustration.

(Psst! If you liked my article, check out my magical mystery game.)

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Comments

  1. SunlessNick

    By talking up Hideo’s fighting prowess, Neuromancer planted the expectation that he would be important. By including Molly, whose primary purpose is physical combat, the book seemed to provide Hideo with a worthy opponent.

    Not helped by the fact that Molly herself spent most of the latter portion of the book as a damsel in distress anyway. (Which I’d argue is also failed foreshadowing).

  2. Ell

    I think Ant-Man would’ve worked much better if it was Hope refusing to wear the suit because of what happened to her mother (which I know she doesn’t know in the movie, but that could be changed) and that’s why she has to train Scott. Though that doesn’t really solve the problem of the movie being sexist and refusing to have a female hero, but it would give Hope more agency which would’ve been nice.

    • Oren Ashkenazi

      Yeah if I was locked into the story of Hope training Scott, I’d probably for something like that.

      • NyX

        That was only the first movie though. You must not be a Marvel fan because Marvel had a way of foreshadowing things that will happen in later films. They always do. Also, at the end of the movie they showed the suit that she is going to wear. I guess you missed that. You really should pay attention before you go bashing something.

        • Cay Reet

          It’s still a bad foreshadowing. You put focus on one character training to use that suit and suddenly switch to another, not giving the expert with that suit a reason of her own not to wear it.

          Marvel does a lot of foreshadowing, yes, but usually they do it a lot better.

          • NyX

            Or maybe you are reading into something that isn’t there. It never really says that she trained with that suit. And so what if she did? It sounds to me like you are just upset that you tried predicting something, thinking it was foreshadowing and it wasn’t, and it didn’t happen. Kudos to Marvel for throwing a loop. I like surprises. They are fun.

          • Oren Ashkenazi

            It is well established in the film that Hope is already skilled at using the suit and controlling the ants, so she clearly trained with it unless you’re claiming that she was just born with that knowledge.

          • NyX

            Sorry, for some reason I am unable to reply to you, Oren, on this, but in your own words “It’s not super clear in the film if the Pym trained Hope with the suit or if she somehow learned on her own,…”
            Clearly I am not going to change your mind on the matter, so I will quit wasting time on this and this joke of a blog. You just can’t accept that you might have missed something, and are now back peddling on your own words. You clearly know more than the people who are making millions on these things.

  3. Hunter-Wolf

    In defense of Ant-Man, the father has very good reasons to not let his daughter do the mission, not only did his wife sacrifice her life to save his, the way she did it involved the suit he invented so he feels doubly guilty about her death, for him to suddenly hand her the suit or be ok with wouldn’t make sense at all, and he clearly knows she is skilled and at no point doubts that, but so was her mother.

    But there is even more, you can’t just view a Marvel movie on its own, it’s part of a much bigger cinematic universe where every movie feeds into the movies after it, so it is very clear that they setup things for his daughter to play the role of Wasp in a future movie, that setup and foreshadowing wasn’t for this movie but for future movies where something big and globaly threatining is going to happen forcing the father to accept his daughter’s use with the Wasp suit (*wink* *wink* Ragnarok and Infinity Wars), there is already a movie scheduled for 2019 for both Ant-man and the Wasp post Infinity Wars and if my guess is right plenty of the male heroes might die in the Infinity Wars (to show is THIS IS the real deal) and female heroes will rise to fill in the spots during the war and after it.

    Also i’d never call the movie sexist, there plenty of cool female chararters with important roles (the mother was a legit badass who saved her husband’s life and Hope played a mentor which is a role rarely played by young female characters) but the movie is obviously Scott’s story not Hope’s, you can’t call a movie sexist because it doesn’t have a female character in the exact spot you want.

    That said i do hope Marvel would focus a bit more on making movies for the individual female heroes, the first one coming is Captain Marvel in 2019 (post Inifinity Wars) but i think they should do more of those to balance things out (Like a Black Widow movie).

    • Cay Reet

      It’s still a weird premise to make your daughter train with the suit you have built and then suddenly decide to hand it to a guy instead. The logical way would have been to find a guy to begin with and train him with the suit … and have your daughter help.
      If the father is worried for his daughter’s future (I haven’t seen the movie, so I’m winging it here), then why did he let her train in the first place? Or what happened five minutes before he handed the suit to a guy instead to make him decide all in a sudden not to let her use the suit?

      With a different story which would have given the daughter more of a real agenda, you could still have had the guy in the suit, but it wouldn’t have been so illogical and, indeed, sexist to a certain degree (the father not letting the daughter use the suit, because she’s his little girl, which suggests he would have let a son use the suit).

      • SunlessNick

        The other option would have been to be more definitive (by which I mean you can sort of read it into the film as, but it’s not a given) that the heist requires some task that only Hope can do, and which she can’t do at the same time as doing the suit-and-ant stuff.
        Not just playing along to make the bad guy not suspect anything’s happening, but vital a tech and infiltration task.
        Reluctantly (in Hope’s case) and with somewhat guiltily relief (in Hank’s) they conclude they need someone else for the suit, because they can theoretically find someone capable of it.

        I wouldn’t like it, but I’d feel better.

        • Cay Reet

          Yes, that would have worked out better, too. If, for instance, Hope had to be seen in a specific place at that time or had to meet someone to keep eyes on herself while someone in the suit does something else, that would have been an explanation. Hank can’t do it, because he can’t control the suit, Hope can’t do it, because she needs to do something else, so they need someone else for the suit part.

          Or Hope could learn about her mother’s fate shortly before the heist and realize she can’t do it, because she’s suddenly afraid. It would be her decision in this case.

      • Oren Ashkenazi

        It’s not super clear in the film if the Pym trained Hope with the suit or if she somehow learned on her own, but it’s pretty mind boggling that he decides to go with Some Guy who has no useful skills for the mission instead of Hope who’s a proven badass with the suit.

  4. Bryony

    (Spoilers for Chaos Walking)

    I think there’s also such thing as leaving it so long that the foreshadowing is no longer fulfilling. Like when we find out that all the women were killed in Chaos Walking, it was a bit late. It was kind of obvious that they had been killed, the only question at that point was how it had happened and that had been drawn out way too long. It should have been told to the readers at the same time that it was told to the main character. The length of time it took to explicitly say what had happened built up my expectations to it being way more taboo – like maybe they were eaten alive, especially after Davy Prentiss has that “she was delicious” moment – than just they were killed. Gendercide is awful, but I kinda figured that bit out a few chapters in. Village full of murder-y men, all the women mysteriously died, everyone else in the world thinks those men are evil and want to keep all women away from them. Wasn’t that hard. I don’t like gore, but it took so long to get to the reveal that it needed some to create impact. I ended up more disturbed by a villain having his nose bitten off.

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